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古代文人偏爱永吉假山的原因

发表时间:2019-05-29

中国文人对永吉假山似乎有一种偏爱,凡是出了名的园林总会有同样闻名的永吉假山坐落其中,遍览世界各地的名胜景点,也只有中国古人如此煞费苦心地选出嶙峋怪石,又大费周章地堆砌造型,其背后深藏着中国传统艺术的哲学趣味。

China scholars seem to have a preference for a rockery, who always have the same famous rockery garden which is located, scenic spots throughout the world, only the Chinese so painstakingly selected jagged rocks, and Zhangdi pilehttp://changdao.ip1688.cn shape, the hidden behind the Chinese philosophical interest in traditional art.

永吉假山这个名称来自唐代,它跟芭蕉、莲花等一样,都是佛教的法物。但在印度佛教中,并未将永吉假山视为法物。而中国唐代后,永吉假山成为佛门的重要法物。我们都知道寺院一般建在深山中,深山的院子里竖起块石头,叫永吉假山。去了真山后,回到院子里,看到这个永吉假山,到底谁是真山,谁是永吉假山?真假之间,包含的是对生命真实的看法。这对中国艺术产生了重要影响。

The name of the rockery from the Tang Dynasty, with its banana, lotus and so on, are the Buddhist dharma. But in India Buddhism, will not be regarded as rockery arafat. The Chinese Tang Dynasty, Buddhism has become an important method of rockery. We all know the general temple built in the mountains, the mountains in the courtyard of stone erected, called rockery. I went to the mountain, back in the yard to see the rockery, who is the true mountain, who is a rockery? Between true and false, contains the true view of life. This has had an important influence on Chinese art.

中国园林都有永吉假山,如留园冠云峰。留园是苏州四大园林之一,是清末复建的园林,但这块石头渊源有自,它被放在溪水中,后面是一个简易的屋子,青瓦白墙,有一些林木点缀其间,永吉假山的影子投在水中。它是太湖石,太湖石在北宋时期就为人们所喜爱,是造园的珍品。米芾以“瘦、漏、透、皱”来概括太湖石的特点,这四个字几乎就是一篇好文章,可以说是对中国艺术哲学的呈现。

Chinese garden has a rockery, such as the Lingering Garden crown yunfeng. Lingering Garden is one of the four gardens in Suzhou in the late Qing Dynasty, is the reconstruction of the garden, but the stone well-grounded, it is placed in a stream, the back is a simple room, tiles and white walls, there are some trees dotted rockery shadows in the water. It is Taihu stone, Taihu stone in the Northern Song Dynasty is loved by the people, is the garden of the treasures. In order to "thin, leaky, transparent, wrinkle" to summarize the characteristics of Taihu stone, these four words is almost a good article, it can be said that the presentation of Chinese art philosophy.

中国人为什么喜欢石头?西方建筑前一般有雕塑,多是与宗教有关的人的形象;而中国人的建筑没有这种东西,但一般却有永吉假山。永吉假山就是中国建筑前的雕塑,其中含有深邃的思想追求。瘦、漏、透、皱就是“拙”,“拙”就是把巧的东西去掉,把目的性的东西去掉,要巧夺天工。

Why do Chinese like stones? Western building general sculpture, is related to religion and people's image; Chinese construction does not have this kind of thing, but is generally a rockery. Is Chinese rockery sculpture in front of the building, which contains a profound ideological pursuit. Thin, leakage and penetration, the wrinkle is "clumsy", "clumsy" is the clever stuff, the purpose of the stuff, to Art beats nature.

我很喜欢明代计成的一句话:“虽由人作,宛自天开”。这句话可以说是中国艺术的纲领之一。我将它归纳成三句话、两个要点。三句话就是:句话,一切艺术都是人作的;第二句话,作得就像没有作过一样;第三句话,作得就像天工开物。两个要点,,遵循自然,但是我觉得这不是重要的;第二,关键的就是规避人工秩序。

I love the Ming Dynasty's words: "although the people, since the days of the wan". This sentence can be said to be one of the program of Chinese art. I can sum it up in three sentences and two main points. The three sentence is: the first sentence, all the arts are made by people; the second sentence, as if it had not been done; the third sentence, as it is like a day. Two points, first, follow the natural, but I think this is not the most important; second, the most critical is to circumvent the artificial order.

个要点:遵循自然。中国人遵循自然,但并不代表中国人认为自然美比人所创造的美,更重视自然美。庄子是自然主义者,他特别欣赏外界自然物。他说:“山林与,皋壤与,使我欣欣然而乐与!”山水连绵,使我欣欣然而乐,这是庄子在写自然美,他特别欣赏山水自然美,觉得山水能够愉悦情境。但是,庄子接着说,“而乐又未毕也,哀又继之”。就是说,高兴还没有高兴完,哀又继之。所以细致咀嚼庄子哲学可以体会到,他不是欣赏外在自然胜过人的内在的美。中国美学的主脉中也没有这个思想。我们今天讲“天人合一”,也不是对外在自然物的重视,而忽视对人本身的重视。我们今天讲中国画的概念,杰出代表就是水墨山水画。不画人而画山水,并不意味着中国人对外在自然物更感兴趣,而是因为山水画是人心灵的象征,一片山水就是一种心灵的境界,重视山水画,是对人内在觉性的重视。

The first point: follow the natural. Chinese follow nature, but it does not mean that Chinese natural beauty created by the people of the United States, pay more attention to the beauty of nature. Chuang-tzu is a natural person, he especially appreciates the external nature. He said: "the forest and soil, and the Gao, I joyfully and with music!" The landscape is continuous, make me joyfully and music, this is Chuang-tzu writing on the beauty of nature, he especially appreciated the natural beauty of landscape, landscape can feel pleasant situation. However, Chuang-tzu went on to say, "and the music has not been completed, the sorrow and the following". That is to say, happy is not happy, sad and afterwards. So careful chewing Chuang-tzu philosophy can be realized, he is definitely not to appreciate the external nature of the inherent beauty. Chinese aesthetics is not the main vein of this idea. Today, we talk about "harmony between man and nature", it is not the attention of the foreign natural objects, and the neglect of the importance of human itself. We are talking about the concept of Chinese painting today, the outstanding representative of the ink landscape painting. Don't draw people and landscape painting, does not mean that Chinese outside nature more interested, but because the landscape painting is the symbol of the soul, a landscape is a kind of state of mind, pay attention to the landscape painting, is the importance of human inner awareness.

第二个要点:规避人工秩序。为什么人所创造的东西,不要留下人的痕迹呢?要痕迹全无,何以人所创造的痕迹这样不堪?问题症结就在这里。人所创造的东西,不能露出人工的痕迹,不能露出知识的痕迹、技术的痕迹。不是外在自然物比人高明的问题,而是要突破秩序,突破知识,突破陈规,而导向对人的内在心灵的体会。

Second main points: to avoid artificial order. Why do people create things, do not leave people traces of it? To trace nothing, why people create traces so unbearable? The crux of the problem is here. Things created by people, can not be exposed artificial traces, can not reveal the traces of knowledge, technology traces. Is not the external nature of superior knowledge, but to break the order, breakthrough knowledge, breaking the rules, and the guide of human inner spiritual experience.

这两个要点——遵循自然和规避人工秩序,归到一点就是人的心灵的体验,这是根本的东西。所以“虽由人作,宛自天开”,就是讲归于人心灵体验的问题。大巧若拙,并非是对美的东西的排斥,而是对美丑相对的知识性的规避,对人类在美的名义下泛滥着欲望的洪流的规避。

These two points - to follow nature and avoid artificial order, to a point is the experience of the human mind, which is the most fundamental thing. So "by man, heaven", is attributed to the spiritual experience of the problem. Art is not a thing of beauty, to the exclusion, but the relative knowledge of beauty and ugliness of human to avoid, avoid flooding with desire in the United States under the name of the torrent.

人类打着审美的名义,恣肆泛滥人的欲望,破坏这个世界,已经走得太远了。打着审美这样一个旗号,吃要吃更好的,住要住更好的,消化要消化更好的东西。人审美到哪里,审美到玉,和田就变成沙漠;审美到家具,亚马逊雨林也要遭殃。中国古代历史上,要讲审美,乾隆是知道审美的,他把天下好画全归在他那个地方,题了几万首诗在这些好画上,糟蹋那么多东西。所以,大巧若拙不是愚蠢哲学,它是让你放弃外在目的性的攫取,追求内在真实的体验。

The name of the name of human aesthetic, unrestrained proliferation of human desire, destroy the world, has gone too far. Under the name of aesthetic such a banner, eat the best to eat, live to live the best, digest the best things to digest. The taste of where the aesthetic to the jade, Hetian becomes desert; aesthetic to the furniture, the Amazon rainforest will suffer. Chinese ancient history, to talk about the aesthetic, beauty is the most aesthetic, he put the world a good painting in his place, the title of tens of thousands of poems in these good paintings, spoil so many things. So, it is not foolish art philosophy, let you give up to grab the external purpose, the pursuit of real experience.


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